Related Academic Research

Persist PAF Liquid


Pyroligneous Acid Found to Improve Photosynthesis

Recent research has quantified the positive impact of PA on photosynthetic rates. Specifically, plants treated with foliar applications of PA showed greater CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll synthesis, sugar production, and leaf carotenoid content. The result is larger and more productive plants producing greater yields with fewer inputs.

Persist’s recent nursery trials showed significant increases in new root growth and total plant weight.

1) Noel R, Schueller MJ, Ferrieri RA. Radiocarbon Flux Measurements Provide Insight into Why a Pyroligneous Acid Product Stimulates Plant Growth. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Apr 10;25(8):4207. doi: 10.3390/ijms25084207. PMID: 38673791; PMCID: PMC11050665.
2) Ofoe, R., Mousavi, S.M.N., Thomas, R.H. et al. Foliar application of pyroligneous acid acts synergistically with fertilizer to improve the productivity and phytochemical properties of greenhouse-grown tomato. Sci Rep 14, 1934 (2024).

Organic Acids (OAs) Increase Nutrient Availability

OAs found in Persist PAF, included acetic, malic, and propionic acid, have been shown to solubilize and mobilize minerals such as N, P, K, Fe, Zn, B, Cu and Mg. According to research, OAs form complexes with components of soil minerals leading to the release of unavailable nutrients for plant growth and development.

Persist’s recent 3rd party trial data showed increased nutrient uptake, including 22% greater Nitrogen.

1) Joo Kyung Lee, Hyun Jun Park, Seung Ju Cha, Seon Ju Kwon, Jin Hee Park, Effect of pyroligneous acid on soil urease, amidase, and nitrogen use efficiency by Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var. Pekinensis), Environmental Pollution, Volume 291, 2021, 118132, ISSN 0269-7491,
2) R. Adeleke, C. Nwangburuka, B. Oboirien, Origins, roles and fate of organic acids in soils: A review, South African Journal of Botany, Volume 108, 2017, Pages 393-406, ISSN 0254-6299,
3) Thimmaraju Rudrappa, Kirk J. Czymmek, Paul W. Paré, Harsh P. Bais, Root-Secreted Malic Acid Recruits Beneficial Soil Bacteria, Plant Physiology, Volume 148, Issue 3, November 2008, Pages 1547–1556,
4) Dakora, Felix & Phillips, Donald. (2002). Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments. Plant and Soil. 245. 35-47. 10.1023/A%3A1020809400075. (Google Scholar).

Enhancing Seed Germination and Plant Growth

Pyroligneous Acid contains natural plant biostimulants, including Karrikins (KARs) — molecules derived from plant material smoke that serve as plant growth regulators. Plants have evolved over millions of years to respond quickly to these “smoke compounds.”

Persist’s recent nursery trials showed significant increases in new root growth and total plant weight.

1) Jindo K, Goron TL, Kurebito S, Matsumoto K, Masunaga T, Mori K, Miyakawa K, Nagao S, Tokunari T. Sustainable Plant Growth Promotion and Chemical Composition of Pyroligneous Acid When Applied with Biochar as a Soil Amendment. Molecules. 2022 May 25;27(11):3397. doi: 10.3390/molecules27113397. PMID: 35684334; PMCID: PMC9182051.
2) Nelson DC, Flematti GR, Ghisalberti EL, Dixon KW, Smith SM. Regulation of seed germination and seedling growth by chemical signals from burning vegetation. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2012;63:107-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-042811-105545. Epub 2012 Feb 9. PMID: 22404467.
3) Flematti, Gavin & Dixon, Kingsley & Smith, Steven. (2015). What are karrikins and how were they ‘discovered’ by plants?. BMC Biology. 13. 10.1186/s12915-015-0219-0.
4) H.M. Ghebrehiwot, M.G. Kulkarni, G. Szalai, V. Soós, E. Balázs, J. Van Staden, Karrikinolide residues in grassland soils following fire: Implications on germination activity, South African Journal of Botany, Volume 88, 2013, Pages 419-424, ISSN 0254-6299,
5) Mark T. Waters, Steven M. Smith, KAI2- and MAX2-Mediated Responses to Karrikins and Strigolactones Are Largely Independent of HY5 in Arabidopsis Seedlings, Molecular Plant, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2013, Pages 63-75, ISSN 1674-2052,

Improving Plants’ Resilience to Stress

Many plant stress responses involve the exudation of organic acids (OA) at the root–soil interface — The same OA found in Persist PAF. Researchers have found that these OA, along with Phenols found in PAF, regulate crucial physiological functions in plants to provide resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought, heat, pathogens, salinity stress, insect pressure, UV radiation, and heavy metal stress conditions.

1) Poonam Panchal, Anthony J Miller, Jitender Giri, Organic acids: Versatile Stress-Response Roles in Plants, Journal of Experimental Botany, Volume 72, Issue 11, 18 May 2021, Pages 4038–4052,
2) Kong, X., Guo, Z., Yao, Y., Xia, L., Liu, R., Song, H., Zhang, S. (2022). Acetic acid-induced changes in rhizosphere microbes and metabolic composition enhance willows’ drought resistance. Science of The Total Environment, 844, 157132.
3) Chowdhary, V., Alooparampil, S., V. Pandya, R., & G. Tank, J. (2022). Physiological Function of Phenolic Compounds in Plant Defense System. Biochemistry. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.101131 (Google Scholar).
4) Allen, M. M., & Allen, D. J. (2021). Acetic acid is a low cost antitranspirant that increases begonia survival under drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 287, 110257.

Supercharging Beneficial Microbial Populations in Soil

PAF contains readily degradable organic acids (OA) and compounds that microbes use for metabolism. Studies have shown that these organic compounds and acids enhance both the diversity and population of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, resulting in improved plant and soil productivity.

Persist PAF has resulted in large yield increases in recent 3rd party crop trials.

1) Becagli, M., Santin, M., & Cardelli, R. (2022). Co-application of wood distillate and biochar improves soil quality and plant growth in basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 185, 120– 131.
2) Sivaram AK, Panneerselvan L, Mukunthan K, Megharaj M. Effect of Pyroligneous Acid on the Microbial Community Composition and Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) in Soils. Soil Systems. 2022; 6(1):10.
3) Macias-Benitez, S., Garcia-Martinez, A. M., Caballero Jimenez, P., Gonzalez, J. M., Tejada Moral, M., & Parrado Rubio, J. (2020). Rhizospheric organic acids as biostimulants: monitoring feedbacks on soil microorganisms and biochemical properties. Frontiers in plant science, 11, 633.
4) Thimmaraju Rudrappa, Kirk J. Czymmek, Paul W. Paré, Harsh P. Bais, Root-Secreted Malic Acid Recruits Beneficial Soil Bacteria , Plant Physiology, Volume 148, Issue 3, November 2008, Pages 1547–1556,

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Persist™ all-natural biochar and PAF liquid plant enhancer are manufactured by VGrid Energy Systems, a California-based clean energy producer