Related Academic Research

Persist™ PAF


Plant Resilience to Stress

Many plant stress responses involve the exudation of Organic Acids (OA) at the root–soil interface — The same OA found in Persist PAF.  Researchers have found that these OA, along with Phenols found in PAF, regulate crucial physiological functions in plants to provide resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought, heat, pathogens, salinity stress, insect pressure, UV radiation, and heavy metal stress conditions.

<see select academic research articles below>

1) Poonam Panchal, Anthony J Miller, Jitender Giri, Organic acids: Versatile Stress-Response Roles in Plants, Journal of Experimental Botany, Volume 72, Issue 11, 18 May 2021, Pages 4038–4052,
2) Allen, M. M., & Allen, D. J. (2021). Acetic acid is a low cost antitranspirant that increases begonia survival under drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 287, 110257.
3) Chowdhary, V., Alooparampil, S., V. Pandya, R., & G. Tank, J. (2022). Physiological Function of Phenolic Compounds in Plant Defense System. Biochemistry. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.101131

Soil Microbial Populations

PAF contains readily degradable organic acids (OA) and compounds that microbes use for metabolism. Studies have shown that these organic compounds and acids enhance both the diversity and population of beneficial microorganisms in the soil, resulting in improved plant and soil productivity, particularly under adverse conditions such as drought.

<see select academic research articles below>

1) Becagli, M., Santin, M., & Cardelli, R. (2022). Co-application of wood distillate and biochar improves soil quality and plant growth in basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 185, 120– 131.
2) Sivaram AK, Panneerselvan L, Mukunthan K, Megharaj M. Effect of Pyroligneous Acid on the Microbial Community Composition and Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) in Soils. Soil Systems. 2022; 6(1):10.
3) Macias-Benitez, S., Garcia-Martinez, A. M., Caballero Jimenez, P., Gonzalez, J. M., Tejada Moral, M., & Parrado Rubio, J. (2020). Rhizospheric organic acids as biostimulants: monitoring feedbacks on soil microorganisms and biochemical properties. Frontiers in plant science, 11, 633
4) Thimmaraju Rudrappa, Kirk J. Czymmek, Paul W. Paré, Harsh P. Bais, Root-Secreted Malic Acid Recruits Beneficial Soil Bacteria , Plant Physiology, Volume 148, Issue 3, November 2008, Pages 1547–1556,

Bioavailability of Nutrients and Minerals

OAs found in Persist PAF, such as Malic and Acetic Acid, have been shown to solubilize and mobilize minerals such as Fe, P, K and Mg.  According to research, OAs form complexes with components of soil minerals leading to the release of unavailable nutrients for plant growth and development.

<see select academic research articles below>

1) R. Adeleke, C. Nwangburuka, B. Oboirien, Origins, roles and fate of organic acids in soils: A review, South African Journal of Botany, Volume 108,2017, Pages 393-406, ISSN 0254-6299,
2) Thimmaraju Rudrappa, Kirk J. Czymmek, Paul W. Paré, Harsh P. Bais, Root-Secreted Malic Acid Recruits Beneficial Soil Bacteria, Plant Physiology, Volume 148, Issue 3, November 2008, Pages 1547–1556,
3) Dakora, Felix & Phillips, Donald. (2002). Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments. Plant and Soil. 245. 35-47. 10.1023/A%3A1020809400075.

Role of Karrikins in Seed Germination and Plant Development

Among the fastest-growing areas of research in plant and soil science is the study of Karrikins (KARs) — molecules derived from plant material smoke that serve as plant growth regulators. Plants have evolved over millions of years to respond quickly to these “fire compounds.” Persist’s new “Karrikaid” product is a PAF-based liquid nutrient with a proprietary liquid biochar blend containing KAR1 compounds.

<see select academic research articles below>

1) Flematti, Gavin & Dixon, Kingsley & Smith, Steven. (2015). What are karrikins and how were they ‘discovered’ by plants?. BMC Biology. 13. 10.1186/s12915-015-0219-0
2) Nelson DC, Flematti GR, Ghisalberti EL, Dixon KW, Smith SM. Regulation of seed germination and seedling growth by chemical signals from burning vegetation. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2012;63:107-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-042811-105545. Epub 2012 Feb 9. PMID: 22404467
3) H.M. Ghebrehiwot, M.G. Kulkarni, G. Szalai, V. Soós, E. Balázs, J. Van Staden, Karrikinolide residues in grassland soils following fire: Implications on germination activity, South African Journal of Botany, Volume 88, 2013, Pages 419-424, ISSN 0254-6299,
4) Mark T. Waters, Steven M. Smith, KAI2- and MAX2-Mediated Responses to Karrikins and Strigolactones Are Largely Independent of HY5 in Arabidopsis Seedlings, Molecular Plant, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2013, Pages 63-75, ISSN 1674-2052,
USDA Certified Biobased Product Seal

Contact Us to Learn More

6 + 1 =
+1 (805) 482-9040
513 Calle San Pablo, Camarillo, CA 93012


Persist™ all-natural biochar and PAF liquid plant enhancer are manufactured by VGrid Energy Systems, a California-based clean energy producer